The Pantheist Index

Spinoza, Baruch (1632 - 1677): Trained in Talmudic scholarship, Spinoza's views took unconventional directions towards Pantheism.

Up to: 16th to 18th Centuries

  • A Dedication to Spinoza's Insights Thorough collection of materials relating to Spinoza's life, thoughts and writings.

  • Advayavada Buddhism Infocenter - Duff on Spinoza Excerpts from "Spinoza's Political and Ethical Philosophy" (1903) by Robert A. Duff.

  • Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650 - 1750 Oxford University Press book by Jonathan I. Israel places Spinoza at the epicentre of the Enlightenment's seismic shock.

  • Spinoza Net Published as an expression of enthusiasm for the discussion and study of Spinoza's teachings, insightful comments, thoughtful writing and other original content is provided by non-scholar Spinoza enthusiasts and the North American Spinoza Society.

  • Spinoza and Spinozism Devoted to the doctrine of the Dutch philosopher and rationalist, including an examination of Spinoza's ethics, correspondence and criticism. Numerous links to texts, studies and bibliographies.

  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Baruch Spinoza Baruch (or Benedictus) Spinoza is one of the most important philosophers -- and certainly the most radical -- of the early modern period. His thought combines a commitment to Cartesian metaphysical and epistemological principles with elements from ancient Stoicism and medieval Jewish rationalism into a nonetheless highly original system. His extremely naturalistic views on God, the world, the human being and knowledge serve to ground a moral philosophy centered on the control of the passions leading to virtue and happiness. They also lay the foundations for a strongly democratic political thought and a deep critique of the pretensions of Scripture and sectarian religion. Of all the philosophers of the seventeenth-century, perhaps none have more relevance today than Spinoza.

  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Spinoza's Psychology In Part III of his Ethics, "On the Origin and Nature of the Affects," Spinoza addresses two of the most serious challenges facing his thoroughgoing naturalism. First, he attempts to show that human beings follow the order of nature. Human beings, on Spinoza’s view, have causal natures similar in kind to other ordinary objects, other "finite modes" in the technical language of the Ethics, so they ought to be analyzed and understood in the same way as the rest of nature. Second, Spinoza attempts to show that moral concepts, such as the concepts of good and evil, virtue, and perfection, have a basis in human psychology. Just as human beings are no different from the rest of nature, so moral concepts are no different from other concepts. They must be wholly explicable under the same laws which explain the rest of nature. Spinoza’s detailed account of the human affects--the actions and passions of the human mind--is crucial to both tasks. For his argument to succeed, the theory of the affects must be both a plausible account of human psychology and a plausible basis for ethics.

  • The First Modern Pantheist Biography and selected statements from the "Ethics" (1673).

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